African Union (AU)1

World Trade Organization (WTO)10

World Bank9

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)8

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)7

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA)

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)6

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)5

Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR)7

South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO)6

Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA)4

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)

Group of Twenty (G-20)3

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

The Commonwealth of Nations3

Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)2

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)2

1 The record shows minimal AU involvement in fisheries subsidies. During the Doha trade round the AU made a statement on fisheries subsidies, but otherwise it has no projects, nor has it made declarations, on the issue of harmful fisheries subsidies.

2 APEC included fisheries subsidies limits in its proposed Early Voluntary Sectoral Liberalization Initiative. In 2000, APEC commissioned a major survey of fisheries subsidies among its members.

3 The G-20 addressed fossil fuel subsidies at its 2009 Pittsburgh Summit, which has some strong parallels with the fisheries subsidies issue.

4 FFA staff and member-state delegations are experienced with fisheries subsidies. The FFA is pushing hard for subsidies to be addressed in a number of international forums, including the U.N.’s Sustainable Development Goals.

5 One of the United States’ objectives in the environment chapter of the agreement is to address fisheries subsidies.

6 Several countries were strong proponents of fisheries subsidies reform in the WTO negotiations, which has translated into the inclusion of fisheries subsidies in the TPP.

7 UNDP recently has been more active than other U.N. agencies in fisheries subsidies issues. It has researched the issue extensively, convened several expert panels, and published Knowledge Products with recommendations on how to reform harmful fisheries subsidies.

8 The FAO has extensively researched and published on fisheries subsidies.

9 The World Bank has produced several Knowledge Products addressing fisheries subsidies. However, currently, it is severely limited by staff capacity.

10 The WTO has addressed fisheries subsidies in its Trade and Environment Committee. There was a dedicated negotiation on fisheries subsidies as part of the Doha Round. The subject of fisheries subsidies has largely become “institutionalized” among WTO topics.


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